Simultaneous Analysis of 97 Primary Metabolites on a Pentafluorophenylpropyl Column (PFPP). This assay was performed by Shimadzu (1), the manufacturer of the equipment used, all information shown is from them unless otherwise stated.
What are Metabolites?
‘Metabolites are substances made or used when the body breaks down food, drugs, chemicals, or its own tissue (for example, fat or muscle tissue). This process, called metabolism, makes energy and the materials needed for growth, reproduction, and maintaining health. It also helps get rid of toxic substances’ (2).
Energy at the cellular level is derived by various metabolic processes, including the glycolytic system and the TCA cycle. In order to investigate the metabolites of living systems it is important to quantify the amount of each metabolite.
Method and Sampling
Many primary metabolites are hydrophilic and difficult to analyse by reverse phase chromatography. Usually, Ion pair chromatography is used for hydrophilic compounds, but this is not compatible with LCMS analysis due to the ion pair reagents causing high background signals and sensitivity deterioration.
A method using a PFPP column has been developed to overcome these limitations, it allows not only hydrophobic interaction but also retention of hydrophilic compounds, which is essential for successful analysis of primary metabolites.
The samples provided to Shimadzu were tissue extracts and all measurements were done on a Shimadzu LCMS – 8040 Triple Quadrupole UFMS.
Liver and Heart tissue samples where extracted and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, each frozen sample was weighed and homogenised in methanol containing internal standards. After homogenisation, a methanol-chloroform extraction was carried out, the metabolites were collected, and the extracts concentrated.
After preparation, 3 µl of the solution was injected onto the column using the gradient shown in Table 2 at a flow rate of 0.25ml / min.
In each extract over 80 metabolites were detected, the PFPP column was especially effective at separating the amino acids and organic acids (1).
- Simultaneous Analysis of 97 Primary Metabolites By PFPP: Pentafluorophenylpropyl Column [Internet]. Shimadzu Excellence in Science. 2014 [cited 16 March 2020]. Available from: https://www.shimadzu.com/an/literature/lcms/jpo114088.html
- NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms [Internet]. National Cancer Institute. [cited 16 March 2020]. Available from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/metabolite